Gear reducers could be complex machines that apply the science of gearing and mechanical benefit to perform thousands of complex operations in many different industries. Gearbox producers have designed a number of gearboxes in multitudes of different configurations and gear ratios. When failures happen it is advisable to understand how to repair the failed systems and how to prevent future failures to keep production ready to go.

Three things that can cause premature failure are poor lubrication, misalignment and overloading. Failure settings can involve bearing failures or gear failures, or both.
Lubrication is critical for both bearing and equipment life. Important aspects of lubrication are the volume of lubricant that is delivered to each gear mesh and bearings, and also the properties of the lubricant. The lubricant forms a slim film that helps prevent metal-to-metal get in touch with between gears and between bearing elements. Modern industrial gears use an involute tooth type and tooth engagement, which is a mixture of rolling and sliding. The oil film is usually a thin barrier between moving parts which allows the rotating pressure to turn the gears very easily without damage to the metal areas. Contamination in the lubricant can lead to scuffing and far faster use for both the bearings and the gearing in a gearbox, so it is essential that maintenance mechanics examine gearbox lubricant for contamination periodically, once for season as a minimum. Each gearbox could have a recommended oil level in addition to a method to gear reducer box lubricate both the bearings and the apparatus set. With bath lubrication, all shifting components dip down below the oil level. With splash lubrication, oil is usually splashed around within the gearbox housing by fast moving elements, covering all moving parts. With pressure lubrication, essential oil is usually pumped to each equipment mesh and bearing through spray nozzles or oil passages from the gearbox oil sump or from and external reservoir.